This is the video you have to interpret to answer the questions in activity 1.
And here you have some basic vocabulary that will be useful to elaborate your answers:
Sedimentation Sediments Layers of sediments Sedimentary rock
Compaction → cementation Compression process Folds Erosion
Activity 2: Team works
We have already talked about the geological processes that intervene in the formation of the relief. In addition, we already know that millions of years ago the area of Sierra de Andía was occupied by the sea. This is the reason why limestone materials (roca caliza) are currently found in this area of Navarra. Water leaked into these limestone materials for millions of years, cracking and dissolving the rock. Thanks to this, there was space to store water and an aquifer was formed: the spring of Arteta.
Ollo valley is peculiar for its crater aspect due to a geological process called diapir.
Millions of years ago saline sediments existed in the lower layers. These large salt masses crossed the upper rock layers and appeared on the surface. With the passage of time, these soft and very soluble materials have been eroded. As a consequence, the landscape presents a crater shape.
In the territory there are subterranean waters that cross these rocks and saline materials. These waters feed the Arteta spring and the water that flows outside is salty. Traditionally, this natural resource has been exploited by saltmakers.
- First, visualize this audiovisual to review the geological environment of Arteta and its groundwater.
- Then, in teams, investigate about one of the topics (see table below).
- Finally, prepare a presentation (using PowerPoint, presentations of Google, Prezi…) and explain the topic of your research to your classmates. You must also include 2 or 3 questions about the most important aspects of your research to make to your classmates at the end of your presentations.
|TEAM 1: ANDIA MOUNTAIN RANGE
|Investigate the relationship between the Sierra de Urbasa, Sierra de Andía and the groundwater emanating from the spring of Arteta. You can consult the bibliography at the end of this document and the following information, among others.
|TEAM 2: KARST LANDSCAPE
|Investigate about karst shaping and the typical forms of karstic relief, such as poljes, sinkholes (torcas y dolinas), lapies (lapiaz), canyons (cañones), caves and galleries (cuevas y galerías), etc. You can check the bibliography at the end of this document, among others.
|TEAM 3: AQUIFERS. THE ARTETA SPRING
|Investigate about the Nacedero de Arteta as a source of water supply for the Comarca of Pamplona: variation of flow along the year, water treatment, etc. You can check the bilbiography and the following information, among others.
|TEAM 4: DIAPIRS
|Investigate the geological process that originates a diapir. Then, apply this knowledge to explain how the Ollo’s salt diapir was formed. You can check the bibliography provided at the end of this document, this this information, and the following resources, among others:
|TEAM 5: SALTWORKS
|Investigate about the marine origin and the traditional process of exploitation of the saltworks of Arteta. You can check, among others, the following information.
|TEAM 6: UDARBE RIVER
|Investigate about the origin of the river, the quality of its water, flora and fauna in its surroundings… What naturalistic value does Udarbe river have? You can consult the following information.
Useful resources and biblio-/webgraphy for activity 2
In this file you can find an extense list of resources and useful information for your research projects.
NOTA: las actividades propuestas 1 y 2 utilizan material didáctico del programa educativo Mancoeduca, perteneciente a la Mancomunidad de la Comarca de Pamplona.
Activity 3.1.: Brief study of Navarra’s most representative ecosystems
An ecosystem is a natural environment (biotope) inhabited by a group of living things (biocenosis) which interact with each other and their surroundings. The characteristics of the biotope, such as light, temperature or amount of water, determine the living things that can live there. But also the living things influence on the conditions of its environment. Therefore, there is an interaction between abiotic and biotic factors of the ecosystem.
Make a brief report in which you include the following information about your ecosystem:
- A description of the biotope: location, morphoclimatic area of Navarra to which it belongs (including data of average temperatures, amount of rainfall, etc.) and predominant rocks in the area (that will condition the type of soil).
- A description of the biocenosis, including examples of species of flora and fauna (the most representative ones).
||Cantabric valleys: Meadows and crops. Rivers and river banks.
||Southern humid valleys: Mountain pastures. Oak forest. Beech forest.
||Pyrenean valleys: High mountain. Gorges and rocks. Pine forest.
||Central basins: Fields and hedges. Mixt forest.
||Western Middle Navarra: “carrascal”. Eastern Middle Navarra: “quejigal”.
||La Ribera: River groves. Fields and steppes. Lakes.
- Every team will receive in the file shared by Drive some drawings with the representative landscape and biocenosis of each ecosystem.
- Climatological areas of Navarra can be consulted here.
- The Geological map of Navarra, with information about the type of rocks. You must find your region of interest and check the legend.
Activity 3.2.: Visit to Arteta’s spring and Ollo’s saltworks
In Arteta, you will be provided with a map to guide you along your walk. Every team will start the ride at the point of the map indicated by its team number (this means that if you are group 1 you will start the ride at point 1 of the map, if you are group 2 at point 2, and so on). You must complete the visit to the 6 points in ascending order, and fulfill the following tasks:
- At each point, you must answer a question.
- And take a picture of certain plants that are distributed in all the area (so you must be attentive to the landscape during your walk).
- At coordinates N 42º 50,828 W 001º 52,078 (Stage 1) you are on the bridge of Ugo, under your feet is the Udarbe river. Looking towards the water channel under the bridge there is a small waterfall and after this a set of stones. Could you describe these stones (color, shape, texture)?
- The Udarbe river comes from the source of Arteta. Do you find any relationship between the flow that the river presents and the time of year in which you are visiting it?
- The main characteristic of this area of the Ollo’s valley is biodiversity. In 1 km we find more than 25 different species of trees and shrubs. What type of forest predominates? In what area of Navarre are we?
- What 3 mills can be found in this area?
- What were they used for?
- What is a diapir?
- How is it originated? (cause and process of its formation)
- In coordinates N 42º 51,024 W 001º 52,027, you are in the old saltworks of Arteta. You will find an explanatory panel of the diapir and the salt mines. How many years ago was this valley covered by seawater?
- Being in the saltworks, in which part of the diapir are you (center, one side, outside …)?
- What geological formation can be observed from the “mirador” of the spring?
- Take a group “selfie” with the background view.
2. DISCOVERING THE FLORA IN ARTETA’S SURROUNDINGS
You must find the plants or shrubs characteristic of the area and photograph them. In the following list, you will find the scientific name of the plant and a number. You only have to photograph the plant that has your group number next to it, and find out its common name. (Each group will present 4 photos).
|Quercus ilex: teams 1, 5
Salix Atrocinerea: teams 2, 3
Fraxinus Excelsior: teams 6, 4
Carylus avellana: teams 3, 1
Sambucus nigra: teams 2, 6
Crataegus Monogyna: teams 4, 5
Populus alba: teams 1, 2
|Prunus mahaleb: teams 4, 5
Cornus sanguínea: teams 3, 6
Rosa sp.: teams 2, 5
Juglans regia: teams 6, 4
Acer campestre: team 3
Juniperus communis: team 1
Assessment criteria and calendar
All the activities will be worked in teams. Introductory activity (1. Relief formation millions of years ago…) and final activity (3. Description of Arteta’s ecosystem) will count 20% of your mark, while oral presentations of your research in activity 2 will count 80%. The criteria for your evaluation are described in the next rubric for assessment.
- On friday 19th and on monday 22nd you will work in computer classrooms 1 and 2, respectively.
- On friday 26th of October, we will visit Arteta’s spring.
- Oral presentations of your team works will start on monday 29th and the deadline to send activities 1 and 3 will be on wednesday 31st of October.
You must send all the activities on time to the next e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Delays in the delivery of your works will be penalized up to one point.